The endocannabinoid system has very widespread effects throughout the body and has the potential to be used therapeutically and medicinally. How Does CBD Affect the Brain? Impact of Cannabidiol on Brain Function The one-of-a-kind neurological effects of CBD are the main reason why this supplement has grabbed the world of wellness <span><b>Background:</b> Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-intoxicating cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic and anxiolytic properties, and thus may be a promising new agent in the treatment of psychotic and anxiety disorders. However, the neurobiological substrates unde</span> …
5 Ways CBD Affects Your Brain
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive chemical made by cannabis plants. In most cannabis plants, CBD is the second most common chemical produced. THC is the most common chemical produced by most cannabis plants. Though many people think about THC when they think about marijuana, CBD is becoming more popular due to its numerous health benefits.
Relieves Anxiety and Depression
Many people are familiar with marijuana’s ability to help alleviate anxiety. While THC helps some people feel more relaxed and calm, it can actually increase anxiety in other people. This has led researchers to examine CBD as a treatment for anxiety and depression instead.
For instance, in one study, researchers examined the effects of CBD on the brain and anxiety levels. The researchers discovered that CBD reduces blood flow to areas of the brain linked with anxiety, such as the hypothalamus, which usually become overactive in people with anxiety disorders. It was also found that CBD reduced overall anxiety, with participants reporting lower anxiety levels after having received the chemical.
CBD may also be effective as an antidepressant. CBD appears to work by balancing the dysfunction in the endocannabinoid system in people with depression. Additionally, CBD has been found to work on a serotonin receptor that influences depression symptoms.
These studies have opened doors for both patients and clinicians. While antidepressants can take weeks to work and cause side effects, CBD works immediately without many side effects.
Protects Brain Cells from Harm
Although many believe that marijuana damages the brain, studies indicate that some components of cannabis, such as CBD, can actually protect brain cells from harm. In fact, in 1999, the United States Department of Health and Human Services actually obtained a patent for the neuroprotective effects of cannibinoids. The patent states that cannabis and its chemical properties can protect brain cells in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other types of dementia.
CBD’s neuroprotective effects are related to its effect on CB2 receptors in the brain. CBD acts on CB2 receptors to create anti-inflammatory responses in immune cells located in the brain. This reduces the extent to which damage to the brain is caused by inflammation.
Oxidation contributes to brain tissue damage and is partly responsible for the brain damage seen in individuals with conditions like Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Research indicates that CBD acts on CB2 receptors to decrease oxidative damage.
Activates the Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system is comprised of CB1 receptors, which are mainly located in the brain, and CB2 receptors, which are mostly located on immune cells. Chemicals like THC and CBD activate the endocannabinoid system when marijuana is consumed. THC binds with CB1 receptors in the brain, producing psychoactive effects, such as pain relief, heightened mood, short-term memory impairments, and hunger.
Unlike THC, CBD does not activate CB1 receptors. That’s why CBD doesn’t have any psychoactive effects. Rather, CBD interacts with CB1 receptors in a way that inhibits chemicals, such as THC, from binding to CB1 receptors. CBD decreases many of the psychoactive effects THC can have, such as memory problems and anxiety.
Additionally, CBD increases anandamide levels within the brain. Anandamide is one of the few natural cannabinoids made in the body. Anandamide has a part in regulating other chemicals in the brain like dopamine and serotonin.
Relieves Inflammation and Pain
Cannabis has been used to alleviate pain for thousands of years. While the pain-killing ability of THC has long been known, studies indicate that CBD can effectively relieve pain as well. CBD helps manage pain by acting on CB2 receptors, which are mainly located on immune cells. The CB2 receptors are responsible for managing some cellular functions.
One of the cellular functions CB2 receptors are responsible for managing is suppressing the inflammation response created by immune cells. CBD decreases the amount of inflammatory molecules, such as chemokines and cytokines, that are present at sites of inflammation. CBD’s ability to decrease inflammation peripherally helps block pain signals from going to the brain.
Fights Psychosis and Seizures
CBD can also be effective in managing epilepsy. CBD seems to manage seizures by lowering the degree of excitation of cells in the brain that play a part in seizures. CBD stops the brain mechanisms that contribute to seizures by enhancing the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.
CBD also has antipsychotic effects. CBD increases anandamide in the brain. Increased levels of anandamide in the brain have been associated with decreases in psychotic symptoms.
CBD possesses numerous health benefits and can help manage both medical and mental health conditions. If you are interested in using cannabis to help manage your health, please call LifeBoost to pre-qualify for the use of medical cannabis.
How Does CBD Affect the Brain? Impact of Cannabidiol on Brain Function
The one-of-a-kind neurological effects of CBD are the main reason why this supplement has grabbed the world of wellness products by the throat. Unlike other cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, CBD has its own way of interacting with the endocannabinoid system.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound whose largest concentration can be found in hemp , a close relative of marijuana – the two come from the same mother plant (Cannabis Sativa L.). CBD is non-intoxicating ; in other words, CBD doesn’t make people feel high , but it allows them to draw a myriad of health benefits from this particular cannabinoid.
The list of medical conditions alleviated by CBD includes anxiety, inflammation, pain, lethargy, aging, skin and bones injuries, and other health concerns . When administered, it allows a person to feel relaxed without the mind-altering effects induced by THC.
Why Is CBD Different From THC and Other Cannabinoids?
As we said, there is a notable difference between CBD and other cannabinoids, or chemicals that are found in both hemp and marijuana.
While all other active compounds of the plant interact with two cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system, CB1 and CB2, Cannabidiol has very little effect on both. CB1 receptors are found in different regions of the brain, including those responsible for controlling emotion, pain, cognition, and memory . CB2 receptors, on the other hand, regulate inflammatory responses and bolster the immune system . [ 1 ]
Others spread myths about CBD over the internet that it interacts with the cannabinoid receptors, but they are completely mistaken. CBD stimulates the endocannabinoid system to produce more of its own cannabinoids and slows their breakdown. [ 2 ] Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the other hand, binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors, activating them and thus changing a person’s thinking, memory, pleasure, and pain perception, and concentration. These effects contribute to what we describe as a marijuana high.
Interestingly, CBD may also alter the effects of THC by blocking the CB1 receptors in places where THC taps. In higher doses, THC can induce anxiety and paranoia in some users, which is why many people are afraid to try weed. But strains that are high in CBD tend to mitigate these effects, allowing you to enjoy the benefits of marijuana without a disturbance.
Potential Neurological Effects of CBD Oil
CBD is known to have a tremendous number of medicinal properties, but because the field of marijuana research is in its infancy, we still need more studies to examine the full potential of the plant’s compounds.
Below, we list some of the documented neurological effects of CBD oil that may help you put an end to your ailments.
CBD could be helpful when it comes to treating neurological diseases due to its neuroprotective properties. In other words, CBD protects neurons from degeneration , which helps a person’s brain remain younger. In a study on Alzheimer’s Disease, CBD was shown to inhibit the development of Alzheimer’s symptoms [ 3 ].
CBD is a natural pain suppressor [ 4 ]. It’s capable of inhibiting neuronal transmission without causing analgesic tolerance and substance dependence. Because of these qualities, researchers came to the conclusion that CBD and other non-intoxicating cannabinoids can be used as an effective alternative to prescription opioid drugs when it comes to treating chronic pain.
On top of that, the topical use of CBD has been shown by numerous studies to improve joint mobility and speed up the healing process after an injury. Many professional athletes use CBD to fight muscle inflammation and other pain-related issues .
As research shows, very high doses of CBD can be used to cease the growth of cancer cells due to its antitumor properties. What’s optimistic about the neurological effects of CBD oil is that it has no toxic effects on humans [ 5 ]. This study also shows that CBD could even help treat leukemia and similar illnesses.
CBD has long been praised for its anti-anxiety effects. Actually, this is the number one reason why people use CBD oil. When you scan the Internet for positive voices of Cannabidiol, you will come across a sea of success stories of patients that managed to go cold turkey on their drug cocktails thanks to CBD.
As for the scientific evidence, a 2011 study tested 24 patients with social anxiety disorders. 1.5 hours before the test, the patients were administered CBD oil or a placebo. It was found that the anxiety levels, cognitive impairment, and social discomfort in patients who were given CBD had dropped significantly as compared to the placebo subjects [ 6 ].
How Does CBD Affect The Brain
Cannabidiol acts through various molecular pathways , which explains the neurological effects of CBD oil. Although CBD doesn’t tap into two of the cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates the activity of the endocannabinoid system through several different receptor-independent routes . CBD also strengthens and inhibits the binding action of certain protein-coupled receptors.
Here’s a quick breakdown of the receptor systems that are affected by CBD.
1. CBD And The Serotonin System
Serotonin receptors affect a wide range of bodily and brain functions. For example, they affect a person’s cognition, mood, appetite, and pain perception , but they are also responsible for our reactions to stress – serotonin receptors regulate the release of hormones that control the above functions.
CBD targets the serotonin 1A receptor , which is why scientists believe Cannabidiol can be so useful in treating pain, anxiety, and obesity. Moreover, the increased activity of serotonin 1A receptors has been linked by researchers to CBD’s potential influence on certain issues such as depression, nausea from chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and schizophrenia .
2. CBD And Vanilloid Receptors
CBD attaches to vanilloid receptors , also known as TRPV1 receptors, to achieve certain therapeutic effects. Because TRPV1 is an ion channel, it helps the body r egulate its temperature, control inflammation, and change the perception of pain .
3. CBD And Orphan Receptors
The orphan receptor has got its name because scientists are still unsure if it belongs to a larger receptor family. Also called GPR55 , the orphan receptor is responsible for regulating blood pressure, bone density, and bone reabsorption .
When the orphan receptor shows signs of constant overactivity, it may eventually cause osteoporosis and contribute to the multiplication and migration of tumor cells. CBD inhibits GPR55 signaling, which is linked to the ability of this cannabinoid to stop the growth of cancer.
4. CBD And Nuclear Receptors
Nuclear receptors are also referred to PPARs, short for proliferator-activated receptors. Their activity is attributed to antitumor effects. CBD activates PPARs, which are found on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. When the PPAR-gamma receptor is stimulated, it triggers an antiproliferative effect that has been shown to cause cancer to regress in lung cancer cell families .
5. CBD As An Anandamide Booster
A 2016 study published in the Frontiers of Pharmacology showed that CBD on the brain inhibits the breakdown of anandamide , which boosts endocannabinoid levels on the brain’s synapses. Anandamide is often called the human version of marijuana because anandamide and THC are much alike in their chemical structure. They also produce similar effects; anandamide controls mood, pain perception, body temperature, appetite, and more.
CBD interacts with the same intracellular molecules that transport THC and anandamide to different parts inside the cell. It also has a strong bond with three kinds of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). Once endocannabinoids get inside the cell, the process of anandamide’s breakdown begins. Cannabidiol reduces anandamide’s access to transport FABP and thus delays it from entering the cell, slowing its breakdown [ 7 ].
Medical Benefits of CBD For the Brain
Now, let’s sum up some of the most noteworthy therapeutic properties of CBD.
1. Stress, Anxiety, and Depression
While THC can increase anxiety in some people , especially if administered in high doses, a study conducted by Neurotherapeutics has found that CBD can help reduce the anxiety experienced by patients with anxiety disorders. The neurological effects of CBD could lead to the emergence of all-natural anti-anxiety therapies in the nearest future [ 8 ].
According to a study posted in Epilepsia, CBD may treat seizures, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric disorders . Not only does CBD have a wide range of antiseizure properties, but it also has a low risk of undesired effects on people who already suffer from epilepsy. This particular quality of Cannabidiol has given rise to more and more studies aimed at determining how exactly CBD and other cannabinoids can potentially treat disorders linked to epilepsy, especially neurodegeneration and neuronal injuries.
Since CBD can help reduce stress, anxiety, and pain, it may prove an effective natural sleep aid. CBD also controls the sleep-wake cycle ; in other words, it induces wakefulness and reduces daytime sleepiness in low doses, but large amounts of these cannabinoids administered a few hours before bedtime can have a sedating effect that often results in a good night’s sleep [ 9 ].
Unlocking CBD’s Unequivocal Potential
While most of the research available today has put its focus on understanding the relationship between humans and THC, CBD on the brain has been recently shown to have great potential with regard to its medical versatility. Once we fully understand all the properties of hemp and marijuana, we will be able to unlock its full power and use it in a way that could benefit us even more than it does now.
Let’s hope that scientists will soon find newer ways to improve human health and regeneration with natural resources so that people can have true freedom of choice when it comes to choosing their treatment options.
- Battista N., Tomasso D. M., Bari M., Maccarone M. The Endocannabinoid System: An Overview. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2012; 6: 9. Published online in March 2012. Pre-published online in December 2011.
- Ahn K., McKinney K. M., and Cravatt B. F. Enzymatic Pathways That Regulate Endocannabinoid Signalling in the Nervous System. Chemical Reviews., 2008, 108 (5), pp 1687 – 1707. Published online in April 2008.
- Campbell V. A., Gowran A. Alzheimer’s Disease: Taking the Edge Off With Cannabinoids? Department of Physiology and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin.British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 655-622. Published Online in September 2007.
- Russo E. Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (2008); 4(1): 24-259. Published online in February 2008.
- Massi P., Solinas M., Cinquina V., and Parolaro D. Cannabidiol as Potential Anticancer Drug. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2013); 75(2): 303-312. Published online in April 2012.
- Beramaschi M. M. et al. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naive Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011); 36(6): 1219-1226. Published online in February 2011.
- Deutsch DG. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targetting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs). Frontier of Pharmacology (2016); 7:370. Published online in 2016.
- Blessing E. M., Steenkamp M. M., Manzanares J., and Marmar C. R. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics (2015); 12(4): 825-836. Published online in September 2015.
- Devinsky O. et al. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and Potential Therapeutic Role in Epilepsy and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Epilepsia (2014); 55(6): 791-802. Published online in May 2014.
Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.
The Impact of Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function: A Systematic Review
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-intoxicating cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic and anxiolytic properties, and thus may be a promising new agent in the treatment of psychotic and anxiety disorders. However, the neurobiological substrates underlying the potential therapeutic effects of CBD are still unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a detailed and up-to-date systematic literature overview of neuroimaging studies that investigated the acute impact of CBD on human brain function. Methods: Papers published until May 2020 were included from PubMed following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. We included studies that examined the effects of CBD on brain function of healthy volunteers and individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, comprising both the effects of CBD alone as well as in direct comparison to those induced by ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of Cannabis. Results: One-ninety four studies were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. All studies investigated the acute effects of CBD on brain function during resting state or in the context of cognitive tasks. In healthy volunteers, acute CBD enhanced fronto-striatal resting state connectivity, both compared to placebo and THC. Furthermore, CBD modulated brain activity and had opposite effects when compared to THC following task-specific patterns during various cognitive paradigms, such as emotional processing (fronto-temporal), verbal memory (fronto-striatal), response inhibition (fronto-limbic-striatal), and auditory/visual processing (temporo-occipital). In individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and patients with established psychosis, acute CBD showed intermediate brain activity compared to placebo and healthy controls during cognitive task performance. CBD modulated resting limbic activity in subjects with anxiety and metabolite levels in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion: Neuroimaging studies have shown that acute CBD induces significant alterations in brain activity and connectivity patterns during resting state and performance of cognitive tasks in both healthy volunteers and patients with a psychiatric disorder. This included modulation of functional networks relevant for psychiatric disorders, possibly reflecting CBD’s therapeutic effects. Future studies should consider replication of findings and enlarge the inclusion of psychiatric patients, combining longer-term CBD treatment with neuroimaging assessments.
Keywords: Cannabis (marijuana); cannabidiol; delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol; functional MRI; neuroimaging.
Copyright © 2021 Batalla, Bos, Postma and Bossong.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.